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            星火太陽能和你一起了解更多太陽能資訊

            2022年家庭儲能行業研究報告

            返回列表 來源: 行業研究報告 發布日期: 2022.12.29 瀏覽次數:

            家庭儲能通常與戶用光伏配合使用,裝機量迎來高速增長。家庭儲能系統,又稱電池儲能系統,其核心是可充電的儲能蓄電池,通常以鋰離子或鉛酸電池為基礎,由計算機控制,在其他智能硬 件及軟件的協調下實現充電和放電循環。家庭儲能系統通??膳c分布式光伏發電相結合形成家庭光儲系統。從用戶側來看,家庭光儲系統在降低電費的同時,可以消除停電對正常生活的不良影響;從電網側來看,支持統一調度的家庭儲能設備可以緩解高峰時段的用電緊張并為電網提供頻率修正。

            根據光伏和儲能系統的耦合方式的不同,分為直流耦合系統和交流耦合系統,分別適合與新裝光伏系統的增量市場和已裝光伏系統的存量市場。增量市場空間更大,是未來市場增長的主要動力:

            (1) 增量市場(目標家庭新安裝光伏+儲能系統):一般使用直流耦合產品。直流耦合的儲能系統包含電池系統和混合逆變器,混合逆變器兼具了光伏并網逆變器和儲能變流器的功能。直流耦合的優勢在于,光伏和儲能電池都通過混合逆變器完成變流,不需要額外安裝光伏并網逆變器,系統集成度更高,安裝和售后服務都更方便,同時便于智能監測和控制。有部分已經安裝好光伏系統的家庭選擇拆除原有的光伏并網逆變器,新安裝混合逆變器。

            (2) 存量市場(目標家庭已安裝光伏,新增儲能系統),一般使用交流耦合產品。只需加裝蓄電池和儲能變流器,不影響原來的光伏系統,而且儲能系統的設計原則上和光伏系統沒有直接關系,可以根據需求來定。交流耦合的優勢在于高安全:交流耦合方式下,能量匯集于交流端,既可以直接提供給負載使用或者送入電網,也可以通過雙向變流器直接向蓄電池充電,可以選用低壓 PV 和低壓電池,消除儲能系統中的直流高壓風險。

            根據系統是否并入電網,家庭儲能系統可以分為并網系統和離網系統,核心差異在于是否接入電網,目前多數區域使用的是并離網一體機系統。(1)并網系統,光伏和儲能系統可以接入電網,在光伏或電池的電量不足時可以從電網購電。適合電力系統穩定、電價相對較低的區域。(2) 離網系統,適合于沒有電網的沙漠、海島等地區或者電網不穩定需要自發自用的區域。使用離網儲能變流器,通常具備柴油發電機接口,在夜間電池供電不足時補充電力。(3)并離網一體機,具有并離網切換功能或者將并網、離網模式整合在一臺機器中,可以在停電時完成切換進入離網模式,適合電力系統不穩定、經常停電的地區。


            Household energy storage is usually used in conjunction with household photovoltaic, and the installed volume has ushered in a rapid growth. The core of home energy storage system, also known as battery energy storage system, is a rechargeable storage battery, usually based on lithium-ion or lead-acid batteries, controlled by a computer, under the coordination of other intelligent hardware and software to achieve charging and discharging cycle. Home energy storage system can be combined with distributed photovoltaic power generation to form a home optical storage system. From the user side, the home optical storage system can not only reduce the electricity cost, but also eliminate the negative impact of power failure on normal life. From the grid side, home energy storage devices that support unified scheduling can alleviate peak hours and provide frequency correction for the grid.

            According to the different coupling modes of photovoltaic and energy storage systems, they are divided into DC coupling system and AC coupling system, which are suitable for the incremental market of newly installed photovoltaic systems and the stock market of installed photovoltaic systems respectively. Larger incremental market space is the main driving force for future market growth:

            (1) Incremental market (newly installed PV + energy storage system in target households) : DC coupling products are generally used. The DC coupled energy storage system consists of a battery system and a hybrid inverter, which has the functions of photovoltaic grid-connected inverter and energy storage converter. The advantage of DC coupling lies in that both photovoltaic and energy storage batteries are converted through hybrid inverters, which does not require additional installation of photovoltaic grid-connected inverters. The system is more integrated, convenient for installation and after-sales service, and convenient for intelligent monitoring and control. Some households that have installed PV systems choose to remove the original PV grid-connected inverter and install a new hybrid inverter.

            (2) Stock market (target households have installed PV and newly added energy storage system), AC coupling products are generally used. Only need to install battery and energy storage converter, does not affect the original photovoltaic system, and the design of energy storage system in principle and photovoltaic system has no direct relationship, can be determined according to demand. The advantage of AC coupling lies in high safety: In AC coupling mode, energy is collected at the AC end, which can be directly supplied to the load or sent to the power grid, or directly charged to the battery through the two-way converter. Low-voltage PV and low-voltage batteries can be used to eliminate the risk of DC high voltage in the energy storage system.

            According to whether the system is integrated into the power grid or not, the home energy storage system can be divided into grid-connected system and off-grid system. The core difference lies in whether the system is connected to the power grid or not. At present, most regions use the off-grid all-in-one system. (1) Grid-connected system: photovoltaic and energy storage systems can be connected to the power grid, and electricity can be purchased from the power grid when photovoltaic or battery power is insufficient. Suitable for stable power system, relatively low electricity price area. (2) Off-grid system, suitable for desert, island and other areas without power grid or unstable power grid need to spontaneous self-use. Use off-grid energy storage converters, usually with diesel-generator interfaces, to replenish power at night when battery power is low. (3) Off-grid integrated machine, with off-grid switching function or the integration of grid-connected and off-grid modes in one machine, can complete the switch to off-grid mode in the case of power failure, suitable for unstable power system, frequent power failure areas.

            Household energy storage is usually used in conjunction with household photovoltaic, and the installed volume has ushered in a rapid growth. The core of home energy storage system, also known as battery energy storage system, is a rechargeable storage battery, usually based on lithium-ion or lead-acid batteries, controlled by a computer, under the coordination of other intelligent hardware and software to achieve charging and discharging cycle. Home energy storage system can be combined with distributed photovoltaic power generation to form a home optical storage system. From the user side, the home optical storage system can not only reduce the electricity cost, but also eliminate the negative impact of power failure on normal life. From the grid side, home energy storage devices that support unified scheduling can alleviate peak hours and provide frequency correction for the grid.

            According to the different coupling modes of photovoltaic and energy storage systems, they are divided into DC coupling system and AC coupling system, which are suitable for the incremental market of newly installed photovoltaic systems and the stock market of installed photovoltaic systems respectively. Larger incremental market space is the main driving force for future market growth:

            (1) Incremental market (newly installed PV + energy storage system in target households) : DC coupling products are generally used. The DC coupled energy storage system consists of a battery system and a hybrid inverter, which has the functions of photovoltaic grid-connected inverter and energy storage converter. The advantage of DC coupling lies in that both photovoltaic and energy storage batteries are converted through hybrid inverters, which does not require additional installation of photovoltaic grid-connected inverters. The system is more integrated, convenient for installation and after-sales service, and convenient for intelligent monitoring and control. Some households that have installed PV systems choose to remove the original PV grid-connected inverter and install a new hybrid inverter.

            (2) Stock market (target households have installed PV and newly added energy storage system), AC coupling products are generally used. Only need to install battery and energy storage converter, does not affect the original photovoltaic system, and the design of energy storage system in principle and photovoltaic system has no direct relationship, can be determined according to demand. The advantage of AC coupling lies in high safety: In AC coupling mode, energy is collected at the AC end, which can be directly supplied to the load or sent to the power grid, or directly charged to the battery through the two-way converter. Low-voltage PV and low-voltage batteries can be used to eliminate the risk of DC high voltage in the energy storage system.

            According to whether the system is integrated into the power grid or not, the home energy storage system can be divided into grid-connected system and off-grid system. The core difference lies in whether the system is connected to the power grid or not. At present, most regions use the off-grid all-in-one system. (1) Grid-connected system: photovoltaic and energy storage systems can be connected to the power grid, and electricity can be purchased from the power grid when photovoltaic or battery power is insufficient. Suitable for stable power system, relatively low electricity price area. (2) Off-grid system, suitable for desert, island and other areas without power grid or unstable power grid need to spontaneous self-use. Use off-grid energy storage converters, usually with diesel-generator interfaces, to replenish power at night when battery power is low. (3) Off-grid integrated machine, with off-grid switching function or the integration of grid-connected and off-grid modes in one machine, can complete the switch to off-grid mode in the case of power failure, suitable for unstable power system, frequent power failure areas.

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