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            星火太陽能和你一起了解更多太陽能資訊

            光伏離網系統設計時注意事項須知

            返回列表 來源: 新能源光伏時代 發布日期: 2023.01.26 瀏覽次數:

            最初,光伏模塊僅用于某些離網和小型光伏系統。之后,并網光伏應用的廣泛發展以及光伏組件技術的日益更新,極大地提高了組件轉換的效率。特別是,一些并網發電廠會充分利用其站點資源。因此,需要更高效的組件來增加投資回報。當然,典型的離網系統具有相對較大的位置,因此對組件轉換效率的要求不是很高。因此,在系統設計期間選擇組件時,通常首先應考慮傳統組件。


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            離網逆變器

            1、考慮交流負載。常見負載分為三類:電阻性負載(燈,加熱器等),電感性負載(空調,電機等)和電容性負載(計算機主機電源等)。其中,感性負載是逆變器特有的,因為感性負載最初需要額定電流的3到5倍,而普通離網逆變器的150%至200%的短期過載能力無法滿足要求。需要仔細考慮。容量擴展設計(當離網逆變器連接到感應負載時,系統設計至少需要感應負載的兩倍)。在離網逆變器驅動2P空調(2*750W)的項目中,額定值為3kVA或更高的逆變器是正常配置。當然,通常同時存在三種類型的負載,但是最大的負載百分比會對逆變器產生很大的影響。


            2、考慮直流側。離網型逆變器具有內置的光伏充電器,通常分為兩種類型:MPPT和PWM。隨著技術的更新,PWM充電器已被淘汰,使MPPT充電器成為離網逆變器的首選。


            3、其他選項。除了上述兩個選項外,市場上還有很多公式,在此不再贅述。但是,一般說明如下:1)根據負載的大小和類型確定離網逆變器的額定功率。2)根據負載所需的儲能電池的放電時間,確定儲能電池的kWh值。3)根據當地日光和充電時間要求確定充電器等的性能(例如,必須在一天之內充滿電)。


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            儲能電池

            1、鉛酸/凝膠電池:儲能系統通常選擇免維護的密封鉛酸電池,以減少后續維護。經過150年的發展,鉛酸電池在穩定性,安全性和價格方面均具有顯著優勢,目前已經這種電池在二次電池應用中所占比例最高,甚至是第一類儲能電池。離網光伏電池。


            2、鉛酸電池:從傳統鉛酸電池發展而來的技術。將活性炭添加到鉛酸電池的負極中可以大大延長鉛酸電池的壽命。但是,作為鉛酸電池的技術更新,成本要高一些。


            3、鋰三元鋰/磷酸鐵電池:與上述兩種儲能電池相比,鋰離子電池具有更高的功率密度,更多的充電和放電循環以及更好的放電深度。由于需要額外的電池管理技術(BMS),鋰/磷酸鐵三元鋰電池的系統成本通常是鉛酸電池的成本的2至3倍。另外,與鉛酸電池和鉛酸電池相比,熱穩定性有些不足,因此與電網無關的光伏系統的應用率不高。然而,由于技術創新,三元鋰三元/鋰鐵電池的市場份額逐漸增加,這是新應用的趨勢。



            Initially, PV modules will only be used in certain off-grid and small PV systems. Later, the extensive development of grid-connected photovoltaic applications and the update of photovoltaic module technology have greatly improved the efficiency of module conversion. In particular, some grid-connected power plants will make full use of their site resources. Therefore, more efficient components are needed to increase return on investment. Of course, typical off-grid systems have relatively large locations, so the requirement for component conversion efficiency is not very high. Therefore, when selecting components during system design, traditional components are usually considered first.

            The picture

            Off-grid inverter

            1. Consider AC load. Common loads fall into three categories: resistive loads (lamps, heaters, etc.), inductive loads (air conditioners, motors, etc.) and capacitive loads (computer mainframe power supplies, etc.). Among them, the inductive load is unique to the inverter, because the inductive load initially requires 3 to 5 times the rated current, and the short term overload capacity of ordinary off-grid inverters of 150% to 200% cannot meet the requirements. It needs careful consideration. Capacity expansion design (when an off-grid inverter is connected to an inductive load, the system design requires at least twice the inductive load). In projects where off-grid inverters drive 2P air conditioning (2*750W), inverters rated 3kVA or higher are the normal configuration. Of course, there are usually three types of loads at once, but the maximum load percentage can make a big difference to the inverter.

            2. Consider the DC side. Off-grid inverters have built-in photovoltaic chargers and are usually divided into two types: MPPT and PWM. With the update of technology, PWM charger has been eliminated, making MPPT charger become the first choice of off-grid inverter.

            3. Other options. In addition to the above two options, there are many formulas on the market, which will not be described here. However, the general instructions are as follows: 1) Determine the rated power of the off-grid inverter according to the size and type of the load. 2) Determine the kWh value of the energy storage battery according to the discharge time of the energy storage battery required by the load. 3) Determine the performance of the charger etc. according to local daylight and charging time requirements (e.g., it must be fully charged within a day).

            The picture

            Energy storage battery

            1. Lead-acid/gel batteries: Energy storage systems usually choose maintenance-free sealed lead-acid batteries to reduce subsequent maintenance. After 150 years of development, lead-acid battery has a significant advantage in stability, safety and price. At present, this kind of battery accounts for the highest proportion of secondary battery applications, and even the first type of energy storage battery. Off-grid photovoltaic cells.

            2. Lead-acid battery: A technology developed from the traditional lead-acid battery. The life of lead-acid batteries can be greatly extended by adding activated carbon to the negative electrode of lead-acid batteries. However, as a technical update to lead-acid batteries, the cost is higher.

            3. Lithium terre lithium/iron phosphate battery: Compared with the above two kinds of energy storage batteries, lithium ion batteries have higher power density, more charging and discharging cycles and better discharge depth. Due to the additional battery management technology (BMS) required, the system cost of LI-ion/FE-phosphate terpolymer batteries is usually two to three times that of lead-acid batteries. In addition, compared with lead-acid batteries and lead-acid batteries, the thermal stability is somewhat less, so grid-independent photovoltaic systems are not used at a high rate. However, due to technological innovation, the market share of ternary Li-ternary/Li-iron batteries is gradually increasing, which is the trend of new applications.

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