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            星火太陽能和你一起了解更多太陽能資訊

            逆變器并網和離網發揮的作用

            返回列表 來源: 芯片崛起之路 發布日期: 2022.12.21 瀏覽次數:

            離網光伏電站是把太陽能發電儲存到蓄電池,然后通過逆變器轉換成家用的220V電壓。


            并網光伏電站是指和市電連接在一起,并網光伏發電站沒有電能儲存裝置,直接通過逆變器轉換成國家電網需要的電壓要求,并優先供家庭使用,家庭用不完的電可以賣給國家。


            目前國家政策支持,正在大力扶持太陽能光伏發電,家庭光伏發電站只要發電,都會有國家補貼。不過并網的話要先跟當地國家電網部門申請。


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            并網,就是必須連接到公共電網,就是太陽能發電、家庭電網、公共電網聯系在一起了,這是必須依賴現有電網才能運行的發電系統。


            主要由太陽能電池板和逆變器組成,太陽能電池板發出直接經逆變器轉換成220V交流電并給家用電器供電,當太陽能的發電量超過家用電器使用的電量時,多余的電就輸送到了公共電網;而當太陽能的發電量不能滿足家用電器使用時,就自動從電網中補充。而這整個過程都是智能控制的,不需要人工操作。


            由于這種光伏發電系統不需要使用蓄電池,也就大大節省了成本,特別是國家的并網政策已經明確指明,家庭光伏電站可以免費入網,多余的電還可以賣給電力公司。


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            從投資的長遠角度,按家庭光伏電站25年的使用壽命計算,6-10年左右可以回收成本,剩下的十幾年就是賺到的。因此,如果想節省電費開支且電力供應方便的話,就選擇并網太陽能發電系統,這也是目前主流的方式。


            但是,并網也有其缺點,就是當公共電網斷電時,光伏發電也不能運行。但是如果把其中的并網逆變器換成智能微網逆變器(并網與離網混合逆變器),斷電時電站仍可以正常運轉。


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            那么,怎么才可以將白天發的電力儲存起來晚上用?這需要添加控制器和蓄電池等,白天控制器將光伏所發的電力儲存在蓄電池中,晚上控制器將蓄電池所儲電力釋放出來供照明使用。


            離網光伏發電站也被叫做獨立光伏發電站,是不依賴電網而獨立運行的發電系統,主要太陽能電池板、儲能蓄電池、充放電控制器、逆變器等部件組成。太陽能電池板發出的電直接流入蓄電池并儲存起來,需要給電器供電時,蓄電池里的直流電流經逆變器并轉換成220V的交流電。


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            這是一個重復循環的充放電過程。這種發電系統由于不受地域的限制,使用很廣泛,只要有陽光照射的地方就可以安裝使用,因此非常適合于偏遠無電網地區、孤島、漁船、戶外養殖基地等,也可以為經常停電地區的應急發電設備。


            這種系統由于必須配備蓄電池,且占據了發電系統30-50%的成本。而且蓄電池的使用壽命一般都在3-5年,過后又得更換,這更是增加了使用成本。而經濟性來說,很難得到大范圍推廣使用,因此不適合用電方便的地方使用。


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            但對于無電網地區或經常停電地區家庭來說,又具有很強的實用性。特別是單純為了解決停電時的照明問題,可以采用直流節能燈,非常實用。因此,離網發電系統是專門針對無電網地區或經常停電地區場所使用的。


            Off-grid photovoltaic power stations store solar power to batteries, and then convert it into 220V voltage at home through inverters.

            Grid-connected photovoltaic power station refers to the power station connected with the municipal power. Grid-connected photovoltaic power station has no power storage device, and directly converts to the voltage requirements of the national grid through the inverter. It is given priority to the household use, and the household can sell the electricity that is not used up to the state.

            At present, the national policy support is vigorously supporting solar photovoltaic power generation. As long as the household photovoltaic power station generates electricity, there will be state subsidies. But if you want to connect to the grid, you need to apply to the local state grid department first.

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            Grid-connection means that it must be connected to the public grid, which means that solar power generation, home power grid and public power grid are all connected together. It is a power generation system that must rely on the existing grid to operate.

            It is mainly composed of solar panels and inverters, which directly convert the solar panels into 220V alternating current through the inverters and supply power to household appliances. When the solar power generation exceeds the electricity used by household appliances, the excess electricity is sent to the public grid; And when solar power cannot produce enough electricity for household appliances, it is automatically replenished from the grid. The whole process is intelligently controlled and does not require manual operation.

            Since the photovoltaic system does not require the use of batteries, it also saves a lot of costs, especially since the national grid-connection policy has clearly stated that the household photovoltaic power station can be connected to the grid for free, and the surplus electricity can be sold to the power company.

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            From the long-term perspective of investment, based on the 25-year service life of the household photovoltaic power station, the cost can be recovered in about 6-10 years, and the remaining ten years is earned. Therefore, if you want to save the cost of electricity and the power supply is convenient, choose the grid connected solar power system, which is also the current mainstream way.

            However, grid-connection also has a drawback, which is that when the public grid is cut off, the photovoltaic generation cannot operate. However, if the grid-connected inverter is replaced by intelligent micro-grid inverter (grid-connected and off-grid hybrid inverter), the power station can still operate normally when the power is cut off.

            The picture

            So how do you store the electricity you generate during the day for use at night? This requires the addition of a controller and storage battery. During the day, the controller will store the electricity generated by the photovoltaic in the battery, and at night, the controller will release the electricity stored in the battery for lighting.

            Off-grid photovoltaic power stations, also known as independent photovoltaic power stations, are power generation systems that do not rely on the power grid and operate independently. They are mainly composed of solar panels, storage batteries, charge and discharge controllers, inverters and other components. The electricity produced by the solar panels flows directly into the battery and is stored. When it is needed to power the electrical appliances, the direct current in the battery flows through the inverter and is converted into 220V alternating current.

            The picture

            This is a repeating cycle of charge and discharge. This kind of power generation system is widely used because it is not limited by the region and can be installed and used wherever the sun shines. Therefore, it is very suitable for remote areas without power grid, isolated islands, fishing boats, outdoor breeding bases, etc., and can also be used as emergency power generation equipment in areas with frequent power outages.

            Such systems, because they must be equipped with batteries, account for 30-50% of the cost of the generation system. And the service life of the battery is generally in 3-5 years, after which it has to be replaced, which increases the cost of use. Economically speaking, it is difficult to be widely promoted and used, so it is not suitable for use in places where electricity is convenient.

            The picture

            However, it has strong practicability for households in areas without power grid or frequent power outage. Especially in order to solve the lighting problem when the power failure, you can use DC energy-saving lamps, very practical. Therefore, off-grid power generation system is specifically for the use of non-grid areas or frequent power outage areas.

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