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            逆變器專題丨逆變器及其分類(光儲行業)

            返回列表 來源: 大燁智慧能源 發布日期: 2022.12.26 瀏覽次數:

            光儲行業中,逆變器主要分為光伏逆變器,離網逆變器,并網逆變器,混合逆變器;工商業儲能系統中還經??梢姷侥芰哭D換系統(Power Conversion System,PCS,也稱為儲能變流器,雙向變流器等)。需要注意,由于逆變器更多的時候只是一種習慣稱呼,因此對于這些常見逆變器的稱呼在業內也并不完全統一,同樣功能的逆變器在不同品牌中可能有不一樣的名稱。本文如此分類旨在方便大家認知理解光伏儲能行業逆變器常見類型,實際選擇逆變器時,需根據產品參數表或說明書了解具體功能和參數,不能只看名稱。


            光伏逆變器,即連接光伏組件的逆變器,把太陽能電池板發出的直流電逆變為交流電,供負載使用或傳入電網。需要明確的是,光伏逆變器本身也分為離網和并網兩種類型,離網光伏逆變器只能變太陽能電池板的直流電為交流電供負載使用;并網光伏逆變器除能供給負載外,還能把多余的電量傳入電網(并網光伏逆變器中有微處理器可以感測電網的交流波形,并且依此波形來產生電壓送回電網)。


            單一的光伏發電系統有很大的弊端,整個系統只能在白天陽光好的條件下運行,限制性大,利用率低。為了解決這一問題,人們想到了儲能,即把多余的電能存儲在媒介中,需要時再使用。


            相比單一的光伏發電系統,儲能系統多了儲能電池這一環節,因此光伏發出的直流電可以后一部分供給負載,一部分存入電池;在光伏不發電時,儲能電池中的電能還可以繼續供給負載;相比光伏逆變器,儲能逆變器還需要多兩個功能,一是把光伏發出的直流電變為儲能電池的直流電,即直流變換,二是管理儲能電池的充放電,在光伏和電池之間智能切換或光伏與電池同時供電——這就是離網逆變器;


            此外,在有電網地區,在光伏發電不足時,還應當可以使用電網輔助供電,或光伏發電在供給負載和儲存之后還有剩余,可以輸入電網,更或者可以用電網給儲能電池充電(如電費波動地區,可以在低電費時用電網充電,高電費時使用電池)。這需要逆變器能把電流送入電網,能進行交流(電網)變直流(給電池充電)的轉換以及能在各種模式中智能切換——這便是并網逆變器。


            而混合逆變器(Hybrid inverter,也稱儲能逆變器),是指集前面所有逆變器功能于一體且經過更多優化設計、擁有更多功能的逆變器,故有些企業也稱其為一體式逆變器或逆變器一體機( All-in-one inverter)。


            In the optical storage industry, inverters are mainly divided into photovoltaic inverters, off-grid inverters, grid-connected inverters, and hybrid inverters. Power Conversion System (PCS, also known as energy storage converter, two-way converter, etc.) is often seen in industrial and commercial energy storage systems. It should be noted that because the inverter is more of a customary address, so the name of these common inverters in the industry is not completely unified, the same function of the inverter in different brands may have different names. This classification is designed to facilitate understanding of the common types of inverters in the photovoltaic energy storage industry. When choosing an inverter, it is necessary to understand the specific functions and parameters according to the product parameter table or manual, rather than just look at the name.

            Photovoltaic inverter, that is, an inverter connected to photovoltaic modules, converts the direct current generated by solar panels into alternating current, which is used by loads or transmitted to the power grid. It needs to be clear that the photovoltaic inverter itself is also divided into off-grid and grid-connected two types, off-grid photovoltaic inverter can only change the direct current of the solar panel to AC power for load use; Grid-connected photovoltaic inverters can not only supply load, but also transmit excess electricity to the power grid (grid-connected photovoltaic inverters have a microprocessor that can sense the AC waveform of the power grid and generate voltage according to the waveform back to the power grid).

            The single photovoltaic power generation system has great disadvantages. The whole system can only operate in the daytime under good sunlight conditions, with great restrictions and low utilization rate. To solve this problem, people have come up with energy storage, in which excess power is stored in a medium for use when needed.

            Compared with the single photovoltaic power generation system, the energy storage system has the link of energy storage battery, so the DC electricity emitted by the photovoltaic can be partly supplied to the load and partly stored in the battery. When the photovoltaic does not produce electricity, the energy in the energy storage battery can continue to supply the load; Compared with the photovoltaic inverter, the energy storage inverter also needs more than two functions, one is to convert the DC emitted by the photovoltaic into the DC of the energy storage battery, that is, the DC transform, the other is to manage the charge and discharge of the energy storage battery, intelligent switch between photovoltaic and battery or photovoltaic and battery power supply at the same time - this is the off-grid inverter;

            In addition, the grid area, insufficient in photovoltaic power generation, should also can use the auxiliary power supply grid, photovoltaic power generation or after supply load and store the remaining, can input power grid, or can use the grid to energy storage battery (such as electricity fluctuation area, can at low electric charge with power grid, the high electricity use batteries). This requires that the inverter can send current to the grid, can perform AC (power grid) to DC (battery charging) conversion and can intelligently switch between various modes - this is the grid-connected inverter.

            And the mixed inverter (Hybrid inverter, also known as the energy storage inverter), means the front of All inverter function in one and after more optimization design, has more functions of the inverter, so some enterprises also call it an all-in-one inverter or inverter (All-in-One inverter).

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