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            星火太陽能和你一起了解更多太陽能資訊

            全球光伏微型逆變器十年江湖,因高效生,以安全贏

            返回列表 來源: 光伏新燈塔 發布日期: 2022.11.24 瀏覽次數:

            光伏微型逆變器(簡稱“微逆”)的誕生始于2006年,一個光伏電價超過4元/W的時代,任何一種能夠提升電站效率,挽回損失發電量的技術都值得嘗試;隨后光伏標桿電價逐年下調,微逆企業變者生存,在性能與成本方面尋找平衡。

             

            微逆企業的發展歷程可以用八個字概括: “因高效生,以安全贏”。 用了十幾年,微逆成本與技術終于雙雙步入成熟期的方案,而為了易于表述,本文將“組串+優化器”和“組串+關斷器”的方案,通歸為微逆的技術流派:都是通過組件級的控制(簡稱:MLPE技術)來實現更高效或更安全的目的。

             

            隨著戶用市場的逐步發展與完善,微逆在安全方面的優勢得到了越來越多的重視,微型逆變器系統采用全并聯電路設計,可優先將每塊組件的直流電逆變為交流電后并入電網,僅存在60V左右的直流電壓,具有天然無直流高壓的優勢, 徹底解決了由于高壓直流拉弧引起火災的風險,同時也解決了當房屋起火時,因光伏電站直流高壓而阻礙了施救的問題。美國戶用市場已為微逆“量身”立法,未來預計中國等市場也會對電站工作電壓有進一步要求,刺激微逆市場進一步興起。

             

            于是出于安全與經濟性的雙重考量,市場開始出現組串+關斷器的產品。微逆以及同類技術市場正在蓬勃發展,而隨著各國光伏市場對安全標準的進一步加嚴,更低成本微逆和更高精度組串發展勢在必行。


            技術方案安全性與經濟型對比

            圖片


            微逆及組件功率優化器主要玩家


            進入微逆與組件級優化器領域時間與經營周期

            圖片


            除華為、SMA外,其他微逆企業產品線只聚焦在微逆和組件級優化解決方案上,很少跨界。這是因為微型逆變器包含電力電子、微電子和固體電子、嵌入式軟件和數據庫平臺、載波通訊、可靠性設計及生產工藝等5項技術集成在一起,其中核心的微電子技術與組串式或集中式的電力電子技術有很多不同之處。所以雖然全球光伏逆變器廠家曾經爆增至數百家,但微逆企業始終數量不算多。

             

            而未來微逆的技術競爭,也圍繞著微電子技術進一步展開。



            微逆企業存續之道


            從存續情況與企業特性可以得到微逆企業生存之道:

             

            美國國家半導體和SolarBridge退出的主要原因是 成本問題,這一問題曾經困擾了幾乎所有微逆企業,早期微逆成本1美元/W,而且美國國家半導體并沒有定位細分領域,但在集中式電站中,如此高的成本顯然不可接受。

             

            而存續下來的企業中,Enphase也曾長期陷入虧損,但作為微逆技術的開創者,一直保持著技術領先性。2018年6月,Enphase公司以現金和股份的混合收購SunPower微型逆變器公司。收購完成后Enphase將成為SunPower微型逆變器的獨家供應商,營收迅速上升,并通過進一步技術創新和降本措施,在當年Q4首次扭虧為盈,2019年起隨著美國戶用市場屢創新高,同時隨著華為退出美國市場后,美國逆變器企業受益匪淺。

             

            雖然營業額不及華為與陽光電源,但如果只從凈利潤上看,SolarEdge可以稱得上是2019-2020年的逆變器王者,2019年四季度光伏業務毛利率為37.3%。

             

            SolarEdge采用DC-DC Optimizer(直直變換優化部件)技術,這種解決方案與微逆變器有相似之處,其原理是將第一級的DC/DC Boost部分從逆變器中拿出來,單獨做在電池板后面的POWERBOX里,每個Booster均帶有MPPT功能,從而可以實現每塊電池板的最大功率點跟蹤;這些Booster輸出的直流電再匯總起來,集中輸入到逆變器里面。這是種介于集中式逆變器和微逆變器之間的一種解決方案。在前級分布式上像微型逆變器,而在后級逆變上又像集中式逆變器。SolarEdge的優化器采用專有的ASIC(專有集成電路)和專利PLC(電力載波通信技術),使得產品的可靠性、技術壁壘得到了保證,同時造價也得到了有效的控制。相比Enphase只以技術取勝,SolarEdge則更加靈活,主要制造商為廣州捷普電子,降低勞動力成本同時,廣東的電子產業配套能力也為其降低物料成本和研發測試提供良好環境。

             

            SolarEdge和Enphase也是美式商業規則的資深玩家,2020年1月1日 通過強制安裝(擴大市場)、提升安全標準(只能選用微逆或快速關斷)、專利保護(保護到設計理念級)三步完成對美國市場的牢牢把控,2020年這兩家企業合計占據美國住宅光伏市場80%左右的份額。

             

            圖片
            看個廣告休息一下吧


            中國企業中,昱能科技是最早成立的微逆企業之一,創始人凌志敏與羅宇浩兩位博士擁有光伏和微電子背景,因此選擇了二者結合的微逆技術作為創業起點。中國企業更加務實,較早思考微逆成本與性能的平衡,2013年,昱能科技推出了三相微逆及單相雙體微型逆變器,均為全球首創并獲得了歐美市場認證。創立了多體微逆架構,很好地平衡了性能和系統投資成本。后來國內許多逆變器企業都在沿用這個架構,可以降低30%以上的成本。此外,三相微型逆變器是微逆向工商業光伏系統滲透的重要產品, 相比單相微型逆變器,其在功能和性能上具有優勢,更加適合工商業光伏項目。2013年至2020年,昱能科技一直是微型逆變器市場唯一一家三相微型逆變器供應商,直至禾邁于2020年推出了其三相多體微逆產品。

             

            光伏行業處于最低谷的2013年,也是微逆非常重要的變革之年,這一年除了有較高技術護城河的Enphase和架構創新有成本優勢的昱能等少數幾個企業之外,大多微逆企業陷入破產窘境。

             

            與國外企業相比,中國微逆廠商在售價方面有較大的優勢,尤其隨著多體微逆功率的不斷升級,多體微型逆變器已經成為微型逆變器市場的主流產品之一,價格優勢進一步擴大。根據Wood mackenzie數據,2020年昱能在微逆市場出貨量位列全球第二,國內第一。目前,昱能科技推出的第四代高功率大電流產品,可以匹配功率達670W的光伏組件,單瓦成本大幅下降,已與組串逆變器價差不大, 是多體微型逆變器領域的又一次重要技術引領與突破。



            微逆的幾次突破創新與飛躍


            微逆技術發展歷程與開創企業

            2006年


            SolarEdge:開創單體組件優化器

            2007年


            Tigo:推出組件級優化器

            2008年


            Enphase:開創微逆技術,推出單體單相微逆

            2009年


            Enphase:單體單相微逆大批量進入商業化應用

            2011年


            昱能:推出單體單相微逆

            2012年


            SolarEdge:推出使用 “IndOP” 技術的新一代優化器

            2013年


            昱能:開創 首款雙體單相微逆及開創首款多體三相平衡輸出微逆

            2014年


            禾邁:推出單相單體微逆

            2015年


            SolarEdge:推出HD-wave 逆變器

            禾邁:推出單相雙體微逆

            Tigo:推出Tigo TS4 platform

            2017年


            Enphase:開創單體單相支持智能電網調度的單相單體微逆

            昱能:支持智能電網調度的單相雙體&多體微逆

            陽光電源、華為推出優化器產品

            禾邁 : 推出單相多體微逆

            2019年


            昱能:推出組件級關斷器

            禾邁:推出支持智能電網調度的單相多體微逆 

            2020年


            昱能:推出雙體組件級關斷器

            禾邁:推出三相多體微逆

            Tigo:推出雙體關斷器產品

            2021年


            Enphase:即將推出單相雙體微逆

            昱能:開創首款匹配20A大電流大功率組件的單相&三相多體微逆

            Tigo:推出適用于大功率組件的關斷/優化器


            2017年以前,國產微逆企業以成本取勝,但技術與產品性能與國外企業略有差距,但到2017年以后,中國微逆廠商著手解決智能微型逆變器應具備的支撐智能電網的要求, 具備了無功補償、高低電壓穿越等能力, 也是在這一年,中國國產微逆廠商的技術水平與國外廠商處于同一臺階,并繼續處于技術發展的快車道。

             

            到2021年,中國企業在部分技術上實現了反超。昱能科技發布了第四代產品,采用新型直流升壓拓撲電路和軟件控制算法,發布了全球最大功率的微型逆變器,輸出功率高達3600W,直流輸入電流20A,而目前其他微逆企業的支持電流在14-15A之間。隨著210mm大硅片組件的大規模應用,組件電流已達到了18A以上。 如果因逆變器電流小而限制大組件的應用,那么便無法享受600W+時代帶來的微逆降本紅利。同時期,昱能科技對其組件級快速關斷產品也做了革新,完成了從一拖一到一拖二的升級,提高了產品的性價比,同樣支持20A直流輸入電流,加之以產品安裝簡便,可直接卡在組件邊框或黏貼在組件背板上,助推產品的進一步大規模商業化應用。


            微逆價格曲線(來源Wood Mackenzie )

            圖片


            近年來,微逆價格總體呈現下降趨勢, 但由于2020年底以來,全球芯片短缺,逆變器價格在2021年有約10%的小幅攀升。于此同時,隨著光伏組件功率大幅增加,多體微逆功率的進一步升級,微逆單瓦成本也被攤薄,未來微逆價格趨于穩定。 索比咨詢預計當國內市場分布式微逆市場啟動后,微逆價格有望在市場帶動下,進一步所有下降。


            微逆市占率 (索比咨詢制表

            圖片


            根據索比咨詢數據顯示,2020年微逆全球出貨量2.28GW,占全球185GW總新增裝機的1.2%, 其中海外主要市場中,歐洲微逆占比1.1%,北美5.1%占全球微逆裝機的三分之二以上,拉美1.3%。從市占率來看,Enphase穩坐頭把交椅,市占率達到83%左右,第二名昱能科技自2013年以來穩居微逆占有率第二的位置,并且從最初的8%擴大至2020年的13%,兩家加一起占據了96%的市場份額(不含優化器市場)。

             

            北美市場是最容易催生壟斷型企業,相信隨著微逆在全球范圍發展后,市場會呈多元化發展,尤其是中國分布式市場一旦啟動,對于中國光伏微逆企業將帶來跨越式增長機遇。



            The birth of photovoltaic micro inverter (referred to as "micro inverse") began in 2006. In an era when photovoltaic electricity price exceeds 4 yuan /W, any technology that can improve the efficiency of power stations and recover the lost power generation is worth trying. Subsequently, the PV benchmark electricity price decreases year by year, and the micro-inverse enterprise changes to survive and find a balance between performance and cost.

            The development process of micro inverse enterprise can be summarized in eight words: "because of high efficiency, to win with safety". With more than ten years, the inverse finally both cost and technology maturity, and in order to easy to express, this paper will "set of string + optimizer" and "string" + off set of solutions, as the inverse of technical schools: by component level of control (hereinafter referred to as: MLPE technology) to achieve the purpose of more efficient, or safer.

            As the door with the gradual development and perfection of the market, the inverse in the security advantages of more and more attention, the micro inverter system USES the parallel circuit design, will give priority to each component of dc inverter for ac power grid, there is only about 60 v dc voltage, with the advantages of natural without dc high voltage, It completely solves the risk of fire caused by HVDC arc pulling, and also solves the problem that when the house is on fire, the HVDC high voltage of photovoltaic power station hinders rescue. The consumer market in the United States has "tailored" legislation for micro inverse. In the future, it is expected that China and other markets will have further requirements for power station operating voltage, which will stimulate the further rise of micro inverse market.

            Therefore, for the dual consideration of safety and economy, the market began to appear series + shut-off products. The market for micro inverse and similar technologies is booming, and with the further tightening of safety standards in the PV market in various countries, the development of lower cost micro inverse and higher precision clusters is imperative.

            Technical solution security and economic comparison

            The picture

            Micro inverse and component power optimizer major player

            Enter the domain of micro inverse and component level optimizer time and business cycles

            The picture

            Except for Huawei and SMA, other micro inverse enterprise product lines only focus on micro inverse and component-level optimization solutions, and rarely cross over. This is because the micro inverter contains power electronics, microelectronics and solid state electronics, embedded software and database platform, carrier communication, reliability design and production process, five technologies integrated together, among which the core microelectronics technology and cluster or centralized power electronics technology has many differences. So although the global photovoltaic inverter manufacturers have exploded to hundreds, but the number of micro inverse enterprises is not much.

            And the future micro - inverse technology competition, also around the micro - electronic technology further spread out.

            Micro reverse the way of enterprise survival

            The survival of micro-inverse enterprises can be obtained from the survival situation and enterprise characteristics:

            The main reason for the exit of National Semiconductor and SolarBridge is the cost problem, which used to trouble almost all micro inverse enterprises. The cost of micro inverse in the early stage was $1 /W, and National Semiconductor did not locate the segment, but in the centralized power station, such a high cost is clearly unacceptable.

            Among the surviving companies, Enphase also suffered from losses for a long time, but as the pioneer of micro-inverse technology, it has always maintained its technological leadership. In June 2018, Enphase acquired SunPower Micro Inverter for a mixture of cash and shares. After the acquisition, Enphase will become the exclusive supplier of SunPower micro inverter, with a rapid increase in revenue, and through further technological innovation and cost reduction measures, Q4 turned a loss into a profit for the first time in that year. Since 2019, with the repeated record highs in the American household market, and Huawei's exit from the American market, American inverter enterprises have benefited a lot.

            Although the turnover is lower than that of Huawei and Sun Power, SolarEdge can be regarded as the inverter king in 2019-2020 only from the perspective of net profit. In the fourth quarter of 2019, the gross profit margin of photovoltaic business was 37.3%.

            SolarEdge uses DC-DC Optimizer, a solution similar to microinverters in that the DC/DC Boost portion of the first stage is taken out of the inverter and placed in a POWERBOX behind the panel. Each Booster features MPPT, which enables maximum power point tracking per panel; The DC output from these boosters is then aggregated and input into the inverter. This is a kind of solution between centralized inverter and micro inverter. It is like a miniature inverter on the front distributed stage and a centralized inverter on the back inverter. SolarEdge's optimizer uses proprietary ASIC (proprietary integrated circuit) and proprietary PLC (power carrier communication technology), so that the reliability of the product, technical barriers are guaranteed, while the cost is also effectively controlled. Compared with Enphase, which only wins by technology, SolarEdge is more flexible. The main manufacturer is Guangzhou Jepp Electronics, which reduces labor costs. Meanwhile, the supporting capacity of Guangdong electronics industry also provides a good environment for reducing material costs and R&D and testing.

            SolarEdge and Enphase are also veteran players of American business rules. On January 1, 2020, they completed their firm control of the American market through three steps: mandatory installation (expanding the market), upgrading safety standards (only micro-inverse or quick shutdown), and patent protection (protection to design concept level). Together, the two companies accounted for about 80% of the U.S. residential PV market in 2020.

            The picture

            Take a break from the commercials

            Among Chinese enterprises, Yueneng Technology is one of the earliest micro inverse enterprises. Its founders, Dr. Ling Zhimin and Dr. Luo Yuhao, have photovoltaic and microelectronics background, so they choose micro inverse technology combined with them as the starting point. Chinese enterprises are more pragmatic and think about the balance between cost and performance of micro inverse earlier. In 2013, Renergy launched three-phase micro inverse and single-phase dual-body micro inverter, both of which are the first in the world and have been certified in European and American markets. A multi - body micro - inverse architecture is established to balance performance and system investment cost. Later, many domestic inverter enterprises are using this architecture, which can reduce the cost by more than 30%. In addition, three-phase micro inverter is an important product of micro reverse industrial and commercial photovoltaic system penetration. Compared with single-phase micro inverter, it has advantages in function and performance, and is more suitable for industrial and commercial photovoltaic projects. From 2013 to 2020, Renergy was the only three-phase micro inverter supplier in the micro inverter market until Hemai launched its three-phase multi-body micro inverse product in 2020.

            The year 2013, when the photovoltaic industry was at its lowest point, was also a very important revolution year for microreverse. Except for a few companies such as Enphase with high technology moat and Yuneng with cost advantages in architecture innovation, most microreverse companies fell into bankruptcy.

            Compared with foreign enterprises, Chinese micro inverse manufacturers have greater advantages in terms of price, especially with the continuous upgrading of multi-body micro inverse power, multi-body micro inverter has become one of the mainstream products in the micro inverter market, and the price advantage is further expanded. According to Wood mackenzie, Renesola ranked second globally and first in China in terms of shipments in the micro inverse market in 2020. At present, the fourth generation of high-power and high-current products launched by Reneng Technology can match photovoltaic modules with power up to 670W, and the single-watt cost has been significantly reduced, which is not much different from that of cluster inverters. It is another important technological leadership and breakthrough in the field of multi-body micro-inverters.

            Micro inverse of several breakthroughs innovation and leap

            The development of micro inverse technology and the creation of enterprises

            In 2006,

            SolarEdge: Pioneer single component optimizer

            In 2007,

            Tigo: Launch the component level optimizer

            In 2008,

            Enphase: Pioneer microinverse technology and launch single phase microinverse

            In 2009,

            Enphase: Monomer single-phase microinverse enters commercial application in large quantities

            In 2011,

            Reneng: A single phase microinversion is deduced

            In 2012,

            SolarEdge: Launches a new generation optimizer using "IndOP" technology

            In 2013,

            Reneng: Created the first dual-body single-phase microinverse and the first multi-body three-phase balanced output microinverse

            In 2014,

            Hemai: Introduce single-phase monomer microinversion

            In 2015,

            SolarEdge: Launched the HD-wave inverter

            Hemai: Deduced single-phase two-body microinversion

            Tigo: Launches the Tigo TS4 platform

            In 2017,

            Enphase: Initiates single-phase single-phase microinverse that supports smart grid scheduling

            Reneng: Single-phase dual-body & multi-body micro-inverse for smart grid scheduling

            Sun Power and Huawei launched optimizer products

            Hemai: Deduced single-phase many-body microinversion

            In 2019,

            Renergy: Introduce a component-level shut-off device

            Hemai: Introduced single-phase multi-body micro-inverse to support smart grid dispatching

            In 2020,

            Renergy: Introduce a twin-body component-level shut-off device

            Hemai: Three phase many-body microinversion is derived

            Tigo: Launch of double-body shut-off products

            In 2021,

            Enphase: to launch a single-phase two-body microinversion

            Reneng: Created the first single-phase and three-phase multi-body microinverse matching 20A high-current high-power components

            Tigo: Launch of a turn-off/optimizer for high-power components

            Before 2017, domestic micro inverse enterprises won by cost, but there was a slight gap between technology and product performance and foreign enterprises. However, after 2017, Chinese micro inverse manufacturers began to solve the requirements of intelligent micro inverter to support smart grid, with reactive power compensation, high and low voltage crossing and other capabilities. The technological level of Chinese domestic micro inverse manufacturers is at the same level as that of foreign manufacturers, and continues to be in the fast lane of technological development.

            By 2021, Chinese companies had made a comeback in some technologies. Renergy released the fourth generation of products, using a new DC boost topological circuit and software control algorithm, released the world's highest power micro inverter, the output power of up to 3600W, DC input current 20A, while the current support of other micro inverse enterprises between 14-15A. With the large-scale application of 210mm large silicon chip components, the component current has reached more than 18A. If the application of large components is limited due to the low inverter current, the small inverse cost reduction dividend brought by the 600W+ era cannot be enjoyed. At the same time, yu can rapidly shut off for the component level of science and technology products also made innovation, completed from went to yi tuo 2 upgrade, improve the product price, also supports a dc input current 20, combined with the product installation is simple, can be directly CARDS in the component frame or paste on the component backplane, boost further large-scale commercial application of the product.

            Slightly inverse price curve (source Wood Mackenzie)

            The picture

            In recent years, microinverse prices have generally shown a downward trend, but due to the global chip shortage since the end of 2020, inverter prices have climbed slightly by about 10% in 2021. At the same time, with the large increase of PV module power and the further upgrade of multi-body micro inverse power, the cost of micro inverse single watt is also diluted, and the future micro inverse price tends to be stable. Sobie Consulting predicts that when the domestic market distribution of the micro inverse market launched, micro inverse prices are expected to be driven by the market, all further decline.

            Negative market share (Soapy Consulting Tabulation)

            The picture

            According to Sobey Consulting data shows that in 2020, the global shipment of micro inverse 2.28GW, accounting for 1.2% of the total new installed capacity of 185GW in the world. Among the major overseas markets, Europe micro inverse accounts for 1.1%, North America 5.1% accounts for more than two-thirds of the global installed capacity of micro inverse, and Latin America 1.3%. In terms of market share, Enphase is firmly in the top position, with a market share of about 83%. Renergy, the second largest, has been in the second position of micro-inverse market share since 2013, and its market share has expanded from 8% at the beginning to 13% in 2020. The two companies together occupy 96% of the market share (excluding the optimizer market).

            The North American market is the most likely to give rise to monopoly enterprises. It is believed that with the global development of micro inverse, the market will be diversified. Especially once the Chinese distributed market is launched, it will bring leapfrog growth opportunities for Chinese PV micro inverse enterprises.


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